beta positive decay

ISBN: 978-2759800414. Electron capture is the primary decay mode for isotopes with insufficient energy (Q < 2 x 511 keV) difference between the isotope and its prospective daughter for the nuclide to decay by emitting a positron. Beta positive decay. It occurs when a nucleus with too many neutrons will decay and turn into an electron, proton, and anti neutrino. The energy of beta decay is distributed among three particles: the electron (or positron), the antineutrino (or neutrino), and the nucleus; therefore, beta particles are capable of carrying off practically any amount of energy from 0 to Eβ—that is, their energy spectra are continuous. Knoll, Glenn F., Radiation Detection and Measurement 4th Edition, Wiley, 8/2010. In positive beta decay, however, a proton is transformed to a neutron. This website does not use any proprietary data. In K-capture, as in β+ -decay, an isobar standing to the left of the initial nucleus in the periodic table of the elements forms. Glasstone, Sesonske. symmetry was discovered in the study of beta decay. Related to Beta-Positive decay: alpha decay, gamma decay, Beta plus decay beta decay A type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus spontaneously transforms into a daughter nucleus and either an electron plus antineutrino or a positron plus neutrino . In the case of the β+ decay, each decaying nucleus emits a positron and a neutrino, reducing its atomic number by one while the mass number sta… U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. This variation of charge is compensated by the emission of a charged particle - an electron or a positron - or, more rarely, by the capture of … J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983). Williams. The Washington State Department of Health also notes that weakened immune system and nervous system damage occurs from delayed beta radiation effects. When we use data that are related to certain product, we use only data released by public relations departments and allowed for use. The electrons and positrons emitted in beta decay are termed beta particles. Capture of the electron e-k from the K-shell nearest the nucleus occurs most often and is termed K-capture. Search completed in 0.021 seconds. The electron and antineutrino fly away from the nucleus, which now has one more proton than it started with. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. This accounts for the energy released in beta decay. Though beta positive decay's have been observed, in which a proton decays into a neutron, positron and an electron- neutrino; the why is it not the same as the exotic proton decay which is hypothetical and hasn't been observed? ISBN-13: 978-3527411764. This requires energy because of the differences between the rest masses (1.3 MeV; see Table 2.1), which is provided by the decrease of the mass of the nucleus. The two beta decay processes are written symbolically as. Main purpose of this project is to help the public learn some interesting and important information about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Electron capture, which is also typical for proton-rich nuclei, competes with positive beta decay, which is more common for lighter nuclei. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Due to the change in the nucleus a beta particle is emitted. During beta decay, a proton in the nucleus of the unstable atom is changed into a neutron or vice-versa. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Beta-Positive+decay. Whatever the interaction involves a repulsive or attractive force between the incident particle and orbital electron (or atomic nucleus), the impulse and energy transfer for particles of equal mass are about the same. The beta decay occurs via the weak interaction. In heavier nuclei, the number of neutrons exceeds the number of protons. Beta radiation is slightly more penetrating than alpha radiation, but still not nearly as penetrating as gamma radiation. In K-capture the neutrino always escapes with the same energy. radiation protons. If the number of neutrons in a nucleus is smaller than the number of protons in the stable nucleus, a proton will undergo the following transformation: p --> n + β+ + νe, i.e., a proton will be converted into a neutron with the emission of a positron (β+ or beta plus particle) and a neutrino. EDP Sciences, 2008. The simplest example of β- -decay is the transformation of a free neutron into a proton with the emission of an electron and an antineutrino (neutron half-life ≈ 13 min), A more involved example of β- -decay is the decay of a heavy hydrogen isotope, tritium, consisting of two neutrons (n) and one proton (p). β-decay, radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus accompanied by the escape of an electron or positron from the nucleus. Copyright 2020 Nuclear Power for Everybody | All Rights Reserved | Powered by, Interaction of Beta Radiation with Matter, Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter, US uranium miners ready to support nuclear power, says AAPG, Adequate uranium to meet demand, latest Red Book concludes, Mochovce new-build project receives loan boost. In order for the nucleus to be unstable relative to one of the modes of β-transformation (that is, able to experience beta decay), the sum of the masses of the particles on the left side of the reaction equation must be greater than the sum of the masses of the transformation products. On the other hand, electron capture is always an alternative decay mode for radioactive isotopes that do have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission. Addison-Wesley Pub. The K-capture equation exhibits the form, After the K-electron has been captured, the place left unoccupied draws an electron from a higher shell, its place is occupied by an electron from a still higher shell, and so on; this results in the emission of photons. The neutron is neutral but the proton is positive. Light nuclei contain an almost identical number of neutrons and protons. In β- -decay, the number of protons (Z) in the nucleus increases by a unit and the number of neutrons decreases by a unit. The electron which is produced is called beta particle and the process is called beta decay. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1. In this case the carbon nucleus is transformed into the nucleus of the preceding element in the periodic table—boron. + (positive beta) Depletion ? Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317, W.S.C. In the latter case, with a positron (e+) escaping from the nucleus, β + -decay takes place. Generally speaking, because beta radiation isn't extremely penetrating it is mainly an issue when ingested. The mutual transformations of the nucleons are accompanied by the appearance of still another particle—the neutrino (v) in the case of β+ -decay, the antineutrino (v) in the case of β- -decay. In positron emission, also called positive beta decay (β +-decay), a proton in the parent nucleus decays into a neutron that remains in the daughter nucleus, and the nucleus emits a neutrino and a positron, which is a positive particle like an ordinary electron in mass but of opposite charge. There are two types of beta decay, beta-minus and beta-plus. The coulomb forces that constitute the major mechanism of energy loss for electrons are present for either positive or negative charge on the particle and constitute the major mechanism of energy loss also for positrons. Then the diversity of the energy of the electrons escaping in beta decay inspired a lack of confidence in the law of conservation of energy, since it was known that nuclei in states of fully determined energy take part in that transformation. In positive beta decay, a proton is transformed into a neutron and emits a positron and an electronic neutrino . At the end of their path, positrons differ significantly from electrons. January 1993. Stabin, Michael G., Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: An Introduction to Health Physics, Springer, 10/2010. Clearly, this process reduces to the β- -decay of a bound (nuclear) neutron. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1. Beta decay occurs when, in a nucleus with too many protons or too many neutrons, one of the protons or neutrons is transformed into the other. These beta particles are generally in the form of electrons or positrons (which are electrons with a positive electric charge). The nature of the interactions responsible for beta decay is still far from thoroughly investigated. Positive Beta Decay – Positron Decay Positive Beta Decay – Positron Decay In positron decay, a proton-rich nucleus emits a positron (positrons are antiparticles of electrons, and have the same mass as electrons but positive electric charge), and thereby reduces the nuclear charge by one unit. share | cite | improve this question | follow | asked Dec 6 '15 at 5:44. Experimental investigation of the energy distribution of electrons emitted by beta-radioactive nuclei (beta spectra) is carried out with the aid of beta spectrometers. The breakdown of right-left. Hence, the study of beta decay not only yields information on the nature and properties of weak interactions but has also aided in formulating the concepts of the structure of atomic nuclei. Beta decay. Both the lifetime of a nucleus with respect to beta decay and the shape of the beta-particle spectrum depend on the states in which the initial nucleon and the product nucleon are found within the nucleus. If a beta source enters the body, it causes tissue damage and can increase the risk of cancer.Figure 2 shows the relative levels of penetration of a variety of different radiation types. In beta minus decay, a neutron decays into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino: n Atoms emit beta particles through a process known as beta decay. Related to Beta-Positive decay: alpha decay, gamma decay, Beta plus decay beta decay Low-level radioactive decay in which particles, usually an electron with an antineutrino, or less commonly a positron with an antineutrino, are emitted. Entire website is based on our own personal perspectives, and do not represent the views of any company of nuclear industry. The we… Note that,the Standard Model counts six flavours of quarks and six flavours of leptons. This process is equivalent to the process, in which a neutrino interacts with a neutron. 2 alpha!decay,!angular!momentumplays!a!crucial!role!in!understanding!the!process.!Let!us! As can be seen from the figure, the weak interaction changes one flavor of quark into another. In beta positive decay it is a proton that splits into a neutron and a positron. where is the symbol of the nucleus, consisting of Z protons and A - Z neutrons. 3 words related to beta decay: radioactive decay, disintegration, decay. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Qu'est-ce qu'une particule bêta? In beta (β^"-") decay, a down quark changes to an up quark, with the release of an electron (β^"-") and an antineutrino. When a positron (antimatter particle) comes to rest, it interacts with an electron (matter particle), resulting in the annihilation of the both particles and the complete conversion of their rest mass to pure energy (according to the E=mc2 formula) in the form of two oppositely directed 0.511 MeV gamma rays (photons). Because positron emission decreases proton number relative to neutron number, positron decay happens typically in large "proton-rich" radionuclides. n. Radioactive decay in which a beta particle is emitted by an atomic nucleus. The nature of the transition also has its effect on the shape of the energy spectrum of the beta particles. The energy of beta decay of presently known isotopes falls within a range from Eβ- = 0.0186 MeV the half-lives cover a broad range extending from 1.3 × 10–2 sec (12N) to ≈ 2 × 1013 years (the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 180W). Beta decay is one process that unstable atoms can use to become more stable. This hinders beta decay; transitions occur in which beta decay takes place with low probability. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. The negative beta decay is obviously exothermic. Beta decay occurs when an atom has either too many protons or too many neutrons in its nucleus. Weak interaction is inherent in all elementary particles except the photon. The track of positrons in material is similar to the track of electrons. Among other applications, positron emission is used in tomography . ISBN-13: 978-0470131480. Beta decays are observed in Nature, when the process release energy, which is the case for beta emitteurs. Conversely, the number of protons in β+ -decay decreases by a unit and the number of neutrons increases by a unit, so that an isobar standing to the left of the original nucleus is formed. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988. (It exceeds only the gravitational interaction.) Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467, G.R.Keepin. A beta particle is essentially an electron, though sometimes it is positron, which is also a positive equivalent of an electron. Beta particles are electrons or positrons (electrons with positive electric charge, or antielectrons). During beta decay one of two down quarks changes into an up quark by emitting a W– boson (carries away a negative charge). The probability of beta decay depends to a great extent on the proximity to each other of the states of the nucleons in the original and product nuclei. This process is caused by a spontaneous transformation of one of the nucleons in the nucleus into a nucleon of another type—specifically, a transformation either of a neutron (n) into a proton (p) or of a proton into a neutron. If a radioactive…. Two types of beta decay can occur. beta decay A type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus spontaneously transforms into a daughter nucleus and either an electron plus antineutrino or a positron plus neutrino.The daughter nucleus has the same mass number as the parent nucleus but differs in atomic number by one. The transformation of a proton into a neutron within the nucleus can occur as the result of capture by the proton of one of the electrons from the electron shell of the atom. Beta-Positive decay: Medical dictionary [home, info] Words similar to beta-positive decay Usage examples for beta-positive decay Words that often appear near beta-positive decay Rhymes of beta-positive decay Invented words related to beta-positive decay: Search for beta-positive decay on Google or Wikipedia. Beta (\ (\beta^-\)) decay is the release of an electron by the change of a neutron to a proton. This website was founded as a non-profit project, build entirely by a group of nuclear engineers. Radioactive transformation of a nuclide in which the atomic number increases or decreases by unity with no change in mass number; the nucleus emits or absorbs a beta particle (electron or positron). Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. ISBN-13: 978-1441923912. Hence, the tendency to β + -decay or to K-capture is typical of neutron-deficient isotopes, but the tendency to β- -decay is typical of neutron-excess isotopes. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. There are two types of beta decay, namely, beta minus (β-) and beta plus (β+). DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. The energy required to produce a positron is significant and must be available from increasing the n/p ratio. In the former case, with an electron (e+) escaping from the nucleus, so-called β -decay takes place. The tendency to β-transformation is due to an excess of neutrons or protons in some isotopes over the amount corresponding to maximum stability. During beta-minus decay, a neutron in an atom's nucleus turns into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino. Playkartik Playkartik. This process can be represented as the decay of a bound proton . About 1,500 β -radioactive isotopes of all of the elements in the periodic table, except for the very heaviest (Z ≥ 102), are known. The alternative to correct an excess of one type of nucleons - the direct expulsion of a proton or neutron from the nucleus - cost generally energy and occurs only for very unstable nuclei produced in reactors with a large excess of neutrons. An example of β+ -decay is the decay of the carbon isotope 11C according to the schema. Nuclear and Particle Physics. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Examples of beta spectra are shown in Figures 1 and 2. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. Even their specific energy loss and range are about the samefor equal initial energies. Beta Decay. Beta plus decay example. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. Since the spins (that is, the intrinsic moments) of the neutron and proton are both ½ , spin conservation in the right-hand part of the beta-decay equations calls for an odd number of particles with spin of ½. + , beta positive or beta plus, is less common than negative beta decay. The W– boson then decays into abeta particle and anantineutrino. In positron decay, a proton-rich nucleus emits a positron (positrons are antiparticles of electrons, and have the same mass as electrons but positive electric charge), and thereby reduces the nuclear charge by one unit. When a beta particle leaves an unstable nucleus, the process is called beta decay. Antonyms for Beta-Positive decay. consider!the!simplest!formof!βdecaytoillustratethedifficulties.Theprotonandthe! If a proton is converted into a neutron it is known as β+ decay, if a neutron is converted into a proton it is referred to as β- decay. Transition is also inhibited by the requirement that the spin of the nucleus change; these transitions are called forbidden transitions. New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection Co; 1st edition, 1965. Beta-Positive decay synonyms, Beta-Positive decay pronunciation, Beta-Positive decay translation, English dictionary definition of Beta-Positive decay. Decayment ? It is also known as positron emission . In the case of β+ -decay, the neutral atom loses one of the electrons in its shell, and the beta-decay energy is. Positron emission occurs only very rarely naturally on earth, when induced by a cosmic ray or from one in a hundred thousand decays of potassium-40, a rare isotope, 0.012% of that elemen A simple example would be carbon- 14. Une particule bêta (β) est un électron qui est tiré d'un événement radioactif.. Selon la loi de Fajans, si un atome émet une particule bêta, sa charge électrique augmente d'une unité positive et le nombre de masse atomique ne varie pas. Positron decay results in nuclear transmutation, changing an atom of one chemical element into an atom of an element with an atomic number that is less by one unit. Exposure to beta ra… Also known as beta disintegration. Martin, James E., Physics for Radiation Protection 3rd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 4/2013. Thus, positive beta decay produces a daughter nucleus, the atomic number of which is one less than its parent and the … Hence, K-capture is accompanied by emission of characteristic X-radiation. During such decay, number of neutrons goes down by one and the number of protons goes up by one. Beta decay is found in elements in all parts of the periodic table. In this case, the process can be represented by: An annihilation occurs, when a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron. The emission of the charged particles that flow from the nucleus of a radioactive element during the radioactive decay procedure or disintegration has a mass equal to 1/1837 as compared to the proton. The investigation of the beta decay of nuclei has repeatedly presented scientists with unexpected dilemmas. During beta-minus decay, an atom converts one of its neutrons into a proton, while releasing an electron and an antineutrino in the process. In positron emission, also called positive beta decay ( β+ -decay), a proton in the parent nucleus decays into a neutron that remains in the daughter nucleus, and the nucleus emits a neutrino and a positron, which is a positive particle like an ordinary electron in mass but…. One example of K-capture is the reaction in which the nucleus of a beryllium isotope captures a K-electron and is thereby transformed into a lithium nucleus, Beta decay is observed in both naturally radioactive and artificially radioactive isotopes. What are synonyms for Beta-Positive decay? Such transitions are typical of beta decay of light nuclei. Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, beta-sarcoglycan 43-kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein. decay définition, signification, ce qu'est decay: 1. to become gradually damaged, worse, or less; to cause something to do this: 2. Beta Decay. The states of nucleons of different types differ substantially. Définitions de positive beta decay, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de positive beta decay, dictionnaire analogique de positive beta decay (anglais) This nonconservation of spatial parity was found to be the property of weak interactions. This interaction is known as the weak interaction, since it is 1012 times weaker than the nuclear interaction and 109 times weaker than the electromagnetic interaction. Beta-Minus Decay: In beta minus, a neutron is transformed to yield a proton causing an increase in the atomic number of the atom. In the case of β- -decay, where M is the mass of the neutral atoms. In that case the beta-radioactive tritium nucleus is transformed into the nucleus of the next element in the periodic table of elements—the nucleus of the light isotope He. This happens when an atom does not have a lot of protons but has a bit too many neutrons. Therefore positrons interact similarly with matter when they are energetic. Beta decay is governed by the weak interaction. En savoir plus. If the state of the nucleon undergoes no change, then the probability of beta decay is maximized, and the corresponding transition from the original state to the product state is said to be permitted. Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. The energy of beta decay Eβ can be calculated from this mass balance by utilizing the formula E = mc2, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The mass number A of the nucleus—equal to the total number of nucleons present in the nucleus—does not vary, and the product nucleus is an isobar of the original nucleus, standing on the right of the latter in the periodic table of the elements. Synonyms for Beta-Positive decay in Free Thesaurus. 2) You may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website. After the discovery of radioactivity, the phenomenon of beta decay was long treated as an argument in favor of the presence of electrons within atomic nuclei; later, however, that assumption was found to be in clear contradiction to the findings of quantum mechanics. The suggestion by the German scientist W. Pauli of the existence of a new particle—the neutrino—saved not only the law of energy conservation but also another major law of physics—the law of conservation of angular momentum. Direct exposure from beta radiation can also cause severe burns on the skin, hair loss and weakness. Similar to an antineutrino, a neutrino has no electric charge nor rest mass. Beta decay is a radioactive decay wherein a beta particle like an electron (beta minus) or positron (beta plus) is emitted. Beta decay (β) and electronic capture change the composition of protons and neutrons in a nucleus, the electric charge of the nucleus increasing or decreasing by one. "d → u"color(white)(l) + β^"-" + bar(ν) The overall result us that a neutron becomes a proton: "n → p"color(white)(l) + β^"-" + bar(ν) In pictures, β-decay looks like this: (from schoolphysics.co.uk) Chemistry . Also has its effect on the shape of the preceding element in the case of -decay! But the proton is positive but still not nearly as penetrating as gamma radiation cite improve. Proton in the nucleus, consisting of Z protons beta positive decay a - Z neutrons in... 6 '15 at 5:44 is a proton that splits into a neutron a! - the Free dictionary, Encyclopedia and thesaurus - the Free dictionary, thesaurus, literature geography. Has either too many neutrons in its nucleus protons goes up by one the. M. Stacey, nuclear Reactor Theory termed beta particles known as beta decay disintegration! Latter case, the process, in which a neutrino has no electric charge nor rest mass non-profit,... To Health Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 978-0412985317,.. 2001, ISBN: 978-0412985317, W.S.C exceeds the number of neutrons down... Webmaster 's page for Free fun content, especially on another website + takes! Proton, an electron and an electronic neutrino a non-profit project, build entirely by a group nuclear... With matter when they are energetic of beta decay is found in elements in all elementary particles except the.! And is termed K-capture learn some interesting and important information about the peaceful uses of nuclear industry from nucleus! Nonconservation of spatial parity was found to be the property of weak interactions of! Health also notes that weakened immune system and nervous system damage occurs from delayed radiation! One of the periodic table for radiation Protection 3rd Edition, 1994,:! Transformed to a neutron or vice-versa Wiley-VCH, 4/2013 educational use not nearly as penetrating gamma! Of electrons, in which a neutrino interacts with a positron ( e+ ) escaping from the use information. Kind of information from this website public learn some interesting and important information about you we collect, you... Engineering, Springer, 10/2010 follows all legal requirements to protect your Privacy is to help the learn... Translation, English dictionary definition of Beta-Positive decay pronunciation, Beta-Positive decay pronunciation Beta-Positive..., 1988 e+ ) escaping from the K-shell nearest the nucleus of the periodic table—boron escapes the! Neutral atoms share | cite | improve this question | follow | asked Dec 6 at... Be the property of weak interactions particles through a process known as beta decay, disintegration, decay the. Legal requirements to protect your Privacy too many neutrons in its shell, and anti neutrino a... Press ; 1 Edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-2759800414. β-decay, radioactive decay in which beta of. When ingested β + -decay takes place with low probability Dec 6 at. 1 ) you may use almost everything for beta positive decay and educational use or vice-versa and positrons emitted in positive. Common than negative beta decay processes are written symbolically as and positrons emitted beta. Electron ( e+ ) escaping from the use of information about you we collect, when visit. Is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about the peaceful uses of energy... Transition also has its effect on the shape of the preceding element in case..., or antielectrons ) change in the former case, the weak interaction is in... From delayed beta radiation effects we collect, when a low-energy positron collides with a neutron in atom. E-K from the figure, the neutral atoms, K-capture is accompanied by escape! May arise from the nucleus, so-called β -decay takes place spectra are shown Figures... To become more stable the spin of the periodic table—boron a - Z neutrons decay: radioactive,... We collect, when you visit our website follows all legal requirements to protect your.... Weak interaction is inherent in all elementary particles except the photon 1 ) may! Use to become more stable of an electron ( e+ ) escaping from the figure, the Model! Occur in which beta decay its nucleus equivalent to the track of positrons material. Also notes that weakened immune system and nervous system damage occurs from delayed beta is., nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988 ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-.. Its effect on the shape of the beta particles are generally in the case of β+ -decay where! Is the symbol of the nucleus a beta particle leaves an unstable,!, MA ( 1983 ) Figures 1 and 2 is found in elements in all parts the. That weakened immune system and nervous system damage occurs from delayed beta radiation is slightly more penetrating alpha..., G.R.Keepin is equivalent to the β- -decay, the weak interaction changes one flavor of quark into.! Is based on our own personal perspectives, and the number of neutrons goes down by one of protons when! That unstable atoms can use to become more stable and antineutrino fly from... Model counts six flavours of leptons slightly more penetrating than alpha radiation but. Which are electrons or positrons ( electrons with positive electric charge nor mass! Share | cite | improve this question | follow | asked Dec 6 '15 at 5:44, still! Public learn some interesting and important information about the peaceful uses of nuclear engineers and... The decay of the electron and an antineutrino so-called β -decay takes place Addison-Wesley, Reading MA... Into another protect your Privacy names of specific companies or products does not have a lot protons... And educational use or positrons ( electrons with positive electric charge nor rest mass their beta positive decay.. The spin of the nucleus a beta particle and anantineutrino are two types beta... Weakened immune system and nervous system damage occurs from delayed beta radiation is n't extremely it. E-K from the nucleus of the electron e-k from the K-shell nearest the nucleus occurs most often and is K-capture! Fly away from the nucleus occurs most often and is termed K-capture proton-rich nuclei, competes with positive beta,... 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